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Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) is an edible legume that is capable of fixing atrophic nitrogen in association with Rhizobium bacteria. Pigeon pea biomass, when incoporated into the soil improves its fertility and condition. Its grain is good source of dietary protein for family and can be sold for cash while the dry stems make good fuelwood.
Pigeon pea originates from India as more than 77 % of the world pigeon pea is produced and consumed in India where it is a key crop for food and nutritional security of the people. Pigeon peas are also commonly grown in African region such as Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Nigeria, Mozambique, Malawi and Sudan and contributes about 21% of global production
In Sudan Pigeon peas is cultivated in New Halfa area, Gadaref, Al Gazera and small areas of Kordofan and South Sudan, where it is sometimes known as the Congo pea or Gunga pea.
Dry seeds of Pigeon pea are harvested when the pods are fully ripe and have turned yellow but before the pods start shatter. Nearly mature pods continue to ripen even after plants are cut, but very dry pods shatter and heavy losses occur when plants are cut.